Prince Charles initially landed from France on Eriskay in the Western Isles. He then travelled to the mainland in a small rowing boat, coming ashore at Loch nan Uamh just west of Glenfinnan. On arrival on the Scottish mainland, he was met by a small number of MacDonalds. Stuart waited at Glenfinnan for a number of days as more MacDonalds, Camerons, Macfies and MacDonnells arrived. On Monday 19 August 1745, after Prince Charles judged he had enough military support, he climbed the hill near Glenfinnan as MacMaster of Glenaladale raised his royal standard.
The Young Pretender then announced to all the mustered clans he claimed the Scottish and the English thrones in the name of his father James Stuart ('the Old Pretender'). A MacPhee (Macfie) was one of two pipers with Bonnie Prince Charlie when he raised his banner above Glenfinnan. Afterwards brandy was distributed to the assembled highlanders to celebrate the occasion. Eight months later Charles Stuart's claim to the thrones of Scotland and England ended in failure at Culloden on the 16 April 1746. Many Macfies, who came from Glenfinnan, followed Donald Cameron of Lochiel on the right flank of the Jacobite Army at the battle.
Charles Stuart returned to the area after Culloden during his flight to evade the government troops of Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. After being hidden by loyal supporters, he boarded a French frigate on the shores of Loch nan Uamh close to where he had landed and raised his standard the previous year. The Young Pretender died in Rome in 1788 after never setting foot on Scottish soil again.
The Prince's Cairn now marks the spot from where he departed into exile.In 1815, the Jacobite cause was no longer a political threat. Alexander Macdonald of Glenaladale, a minor branch of the Clan Donald, built a memorial tower at Glenfinnan to commemorate the raising of the standard of the Young Pretender. The tower, which is surmounted by a statue of an anonymous Highlander, was designed by the Scottish architect James Gillespie Graham. The monument's location at Glenfinnan was made possible because in 1812 a new road - built by Thomas Telford - opened between Fort William to Arisaig.
Since 1938, the Glenfinnan Monument has been in the care of the National Trust for Scotland. The Trust have also constructed a visitor centre, which provides tickets, information and exhibitions, and a shop, cafe, and toilets. The tower has also become a monument to Alexander Macdonald, who died before its completion. Hundreds of Jacobite enthusiasts gather at the tower each year on 19 August to remember the Rising of '45. The National Trust Website.